All Hallows’ Eve

31 October 2015

Periwinkle,

           I spent a little time recently reading sections of Bokencamp’s The Xiang’er Commentary to the Laozi (1). As you realize, I have a tendency to stray occasionally. Lately when this occurs it’s been to the East where I do find various philosophies of interest. I do feel to some extent that the three branches of Abrahamic religion have been marred by the reactionaries. I reckon this is nothing new, Periwinkle, but it feels more relevant today than ever prior during our lifetimes. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Mencken perhaps took their destain a little too far, though many of their respective points garner considerable merit as well. Religion does carry its parallels to enslavement. I’ve ordered an older copy of the Jefferson Bible (2) recently. Simply to approach the subject of theology from a more philosophical aspect, maintaining the ethical and moral traditions. R.W. Emerson’s Transcendentalist take still looms large in this area as well. Adams’ Unitarian thinking. At any rate, where was I going? Oh yes, so I read through some pretty nifty commentaries pertaining to the Dao De Jing in the Bokencamp work mentioned above. In an early section, the writing alludes to commentaries on the nature of the ancient nobles:

‘They were hesitant as if fording a winter river,
cautious as if fearing their neighbors.
They were as self-controlled as guests.
Dispelling [their emotions] like ice that is beginning to melt;
Undifferentiated like uncarved wood; broad as a valley
They were complete and uniform, like muddy water.
Muddy water will gradually clarify through stillness.’ (3)

           Look again at these lines from the Laozi, Periwinkle. What do you glean? One more time… The first two lines immediately got my attention and probably grab you as well, being one who relishes the outdoors. What goes through your mind prior to fording the Penobscot or Elk in winter? ‘Why am I doing this’? Or, maybe on a lighter note, ‘I really love that damn dog, but…’ Most likely there better be a pretty compelling reason to do so, right? I realize, knowing who you are, Periwinkle, you’re reading this saying ‘Get to it Tetraneuris. Ok, ethical considerations come to the forefront when considering weighty matters. What is being deliberated’? This most likely is not simply a trip across to get the Midge one foolishly cast into a tree on the distant bank in February when one most likely should not have been fishing in the first place. Winter, rivers, peril. The ‘Celestial Masters’ hit a cord on this one, Periwinkle. What of the next line regarding caution? Again, this is a remarkable allegory that can in my view be applied to international relations – not simply will John next door see if I intentionally eat the remainder of the pumpkin pie. Confucianism and Daoism contrast with one another, regimentation and family structure, versus the sometimes chaotic basis of Tao’s nature – Yin and Yang. Two philosophies meshing, one common end. In this line, I believe, there is some commonality. Taking matters from the family, the local, to the larger community. How is a state behaving? Are its leaders concerned about how the country is perceived on the global stage? Is there short-term thinking being employed, or are longer-term implications clearly being considered? I deeply appreciate the first two lines. ‘Those fording a river in winter are terrified. Those who fear their neighbors do not dare commit a wrong for fear that it will be known throughout the village’, Bokenkamp translates (4).
           ‘They were as self-controlled as guests’. Another great line. ‘Self-denying’, is the commentary. Do we conduct ourselves in this fashion at all times? This is significant self-control. Regarding the next line and emotions, the Dao references water. Allow one’s emotions to melt. One thinks of a gradual, but proper process. Letting go. On this side of the state eventually reaching the great Pacific via the Columbia Basin. Your neck of the woods, well I reckon it depends on where you happen to be at the moment, but eventually the Atlantic. Uncut wood. A reference to not standing out. Humility. ‘Back to the original simplicity’ according to the commentaries (5). One can see some parallels with others’ thoughts. Seneca’s writings regarding simplicity are well known. Perhaps a reference to Jesus’ thinking regarding children may be noted here. Also, Diogenes of Sinope, that fine apostle of reason and virtue who lived in accord with nature. The importance of the initial state, Periwinkle. Not standing out. Regarding the muddy water, learning to be still is a learning process (muddy). One thinks of transparency, deviating from the masses through integrity. Subtle stillness.
           For a further look at the excellent symbolic nature of water in Daoism I cite from Moss Roberts’ Dao De Jing, The Book of the Way (6):

Stanza 8

1 Perfect Mastery works like water:
2 A boon to every living creature,
3 In adverse relation never
4 At home where most can not abide,
5 Closest to the Way it lies.
6 For position, favor lower ground;
7 For thought, profundity;
8 For engaging, gentility;
9 For speaking, credibility;
10 For ruling, authority;
11 For Service, capability;
12 For action, suitability.
13 Avoiding confrontation
14 Eliminates accusation.
15 There is no other way.

           There is much to glean from the Tao’s ‘Stanza 8’ regarding the symbolic nature of water. Truth, what is good. ‘A boon to every living creature’ (life giving, also perhaps love one’s fellow man), ‘In adverse relation never’ (flows around or over obstructions, not defensive or aggressive – ‘avoiding confrontation’), ‘For position, favor lower ground’ (humility), ‘At home where most cannot abide’. Simple and proper thinking. Water also has its purification and dilutive aspects.
           Shifting gears to contemporary dope, I see the Central Bank decided at its latest meeting to maintain the present low interest rate levels. This will carry into December at which point the Fed’s voters will meet to again reassess matters. We’ll see how things develop over the period before us, Periwinkle. I’ve read numerous articles on the deceleration of corporate revenues. For example, ‘U.S. Companies Warn of Slowing Economy’ (7) and ‘The Age of the torporation’ (8). How can global economies be as anemic as they clearly are and multinational revenues not slow? The emerging markets (EMs) have been having a hard go of it lately. U.S. Central Bank policy is sensitive to this. The slowing EM economies have had a greater impact on Europe than the US, where exports unfortunately play a lessor role. However, Europe slowing further will not be helpful to US growth. I regardless remain in the ‘gradually raise rates camp’. Short term this will mean more strength for the dollar which will not help the above; however, rates too low for too long causes other problems. A small increase or two will not impact lending to a significant degree. Nor do I believe coming ‘off of the bottom’ will have a significant impact on demand (the great and unfortunate US driver, consumption); but, gradually raising rates may help to offset other potentially troublesome areas. There is little incentive for saving today. There is a great deal of incentive for borrowing. This is not proper thinking, though it has stabilized matters following the recent crisis. The policy mindset needs to adjust, Periwinkle. We’ve discussed this before, but it always bears repeating. Think long-term. See above jargon for one aspect on proper thinking.
           Long-term means having the fortitude to making big adjustments for future and enduring health. Eliminate the mortgage deduction. Raise gasoline taxes (fuel prices are down and expected to remain so for a while). Have a consumption tax across all sectors. Hear the howls of ‘but this is regressive taxation’! Or, ‘these policies will shut down the economy’! ‘What we need is more government borrowing and spending’! So forth. You know the improper (usually academic) tune. Call these new revenue sources War and Entitlement Taxes. Look at the history of our rising debt levels and one can understand from whence it arose. Divert these new revenues to a trust account for the lowering of the U.S. national debt. Do not allow this trust to be invaded for other purposes. Second, and this is a very important part of the new package, lower taxes that will incentivize work and saving. Lower income taxes ‘across the board’, raise the maximum amount that can be contributed to tax free Roth IRAs, and lower the FICA income taxation threshold ($118,500 at the moment) to incentivize self-employed business creation. Hear more howls, ‘but Social Security needs more inflows, not less’! Phase out the dinosaur. Let the populace use their minds. Incentivize saving, not the purchase of new vehicles. Raise the retirement age, lower payouts, and implement an income scale for benefits while gradually phasing out the sacred cow. ‘But I’m 50 and self-employed and have paid in almost 15% of much of my income over the last thirty years! Now you want to take away what I’ve contributed’! These are the true payors; those who will look on and say, ‘well, I reckon I’ve contributed to the ‘greater good’. Everyone sacrifices. Leave it at that. Look at what today constitutes half of the nation’s annual budget. Serious reforms are needed, Periwinkle. How to maintain a sound currency in a more competitive future environment, legislate reforms. Central banks have given the legislators time. Is the issue being addressed? See the new budget proposal, ‘Paul Ryan Starts Off on Wrong Foot With Budget Deal’ (9). The senior concern regarding the above mentioned proposals (not from the Ryan article), keeping in mind the already cited revenue slowdown of the larger corporations, is the lunacy of implementing new consumption taxes while perhaps staring into the face of another economic contraction. It is after all a consumption driven economy. And, to raise rates at such a time? What about further strength of the dollar and its global economic impact? Things are anemic… We just got a 1.5% GDP number, lower than expected. Markets are eventually going to drive changes, Periwinkle. Begin phasing things in while the economy is growing.
           If the economy does slow, what about the accompanying rise in unemployment? You already know the participation numbers. What about the populists? The U.S. today has one running in each party. One a socialist, the other a fellow with a poor business track record and a ludicrous stance regarding immigration. If one of the two is elected, so be it. The U.S. already has many socialist attributes. The aforementioned entitlement programs, heavy regulation of firms, the welfare state, government ownership of real property, significant taxation, significant environmental regulations, many levels of government agencies and programs. Outright or direct ownership of the means of production are not an issue at the moment, but indirectly the contributions of the above mentioned items have a similar detrimental economic affect. Further, I’ll grant that a populist socialist (as contrasted with say a democratic socialist) will trash all of the reforms suggested above (ie., reforming entitlements), but pendulums swing back and forth over time. Actually, both versions would dismiss the above suggested reforms… How might a populist socialist be defined versus a democratic one? Both claim to represent the common people. The former may be more prone to fall into what Hayek described as the authoritarian group, however. The typical populist mold of today is that of the anti-immigration, anti-international organization, anti-federalist, Euro-skeptic type. Populists can be on each side of the fiscal spectrum. Far left versions are severe collectivists, ‘property is death’, types. Contrast these entities with the more traditionalist socialist parties in Europe. Poland’s recent outcome has the anti-immigration theme. Other populist parties, entities (there are many)… National Front in France. Germany’s AfD party. England’s UKIP and now perhaps the Conservatives for Britain (Euro Skeptics), Corbyn has populist leanings… If ‘populist’ sentiment continues to make electoral ground, so be it. Constitutional governments, elected bodies, should be able to maintain the rule of law. Heck, we’ve both advocated commercial relations with Communist regimes. Why? Because, trade is beneficial to US citizens. Trade opens politically repressive states. If a country moves from a market based economy to a socialist economy, that is the election outcome (albeit the wrong route to prosperity).
           What’s the fear? The Weimar experience. Governments today continue to be saddled with over encumbered balance sheets and significant pension obligations. Weimar it was reparations and humiliation at Versailles. People are suffering today. Employment levels have dramatically improved from the 2009 period, but living standards remain difficult as wages reflect the low inflation environment. These conditions are why it is likely interest rates will remain at low levels for an extended period of time (think Japan). Due to government obligations, inflation will likely remain tame. Government mandating wage increases is not the answer. This will result in fewer available jobs. Protectionist measures and obstructing free trade are certainly not the answer. Additional government spending (borrowing) is not the answer. War is not the answer. The latter two are immoral. What’s the remedy? Time and sacrifice. When a family has borrowed too much, spending is cut and debt payments are increased. Governments need to remain on this path while continuing to find ways to incentivize business creation and saving. Governments have the added burden of pensions. Policy makers have to be candid, reforms have to continue. Rate expectations for pension calculations have to continue coming down. Contributions going up. Transitions to defined contribution plans continued.
           In the US there is a wrinkle. The politicians have allowed the people to believe the status quo (remember Friedman’s The Tyranny of the Status Quo, Periwinkle?) can go on. Granted, 08/09 was a wake up call for everyone, but today things feel to have reverted back to the usual routine. The debt ceiling gets raised, things go on as usual. This has been a failure of our Federalist system. As long as creditors are willing to purchase our obligations, it can continue; however, what is the reality? Eventually, this business will end. It does not have to be dictated in the markets in a brutal fashion. Politicians need to act as Trustees rather than Delegates, coming clean with their constituents. Getting out of our economic jam is going to require sacrifice by all citizens. We have been irresponsible. We’ve over spent. If we do not correct these problems in a tranquil manner, the markets will eventually force the issue. We need to cut spending, cut pensions and raise taxes. It’s not a very savvy political message for those hoping to get elected next fall, but it’s the truth. Otherwise, eventually the currency will be the issue.
           As we’ve discussed over and over, Periwinkle, war and inflation are not the remedies for the globe’s present ailments. War has played an immense role in the mushrooming of our debt levels. Immense. Given everything mentioned above, can the nation continue to finance additional wars? Be honest. No. The citizens of the United States have a great sense of their ability to compete, to produce competitive high quality goods and sell them throughout global markets; to have excellent educational institutions and research centers. This should continue to be the approach. Competition, not conflict.
           I recently read Germany: Memories of a Nation by Neil MacGregor (10). I came across the book initially through a review ‘The Myth of the Two Germanys’ in the Wall Street Journal’s Saturday edition. The write up by Neil Gregor, editor of the journal German History, was quite critical of the work (11). Therefore, I ordered a copy. By the way, before I forget to mention it, the latest German History has a nice study on the Brazil/German historical relationship. The issue also strays into the Germanic influence in the development of other areas in South America as well – the September edition (12). At any rate, Neil MacGregor is the former director of the British Museum. Today, according to Prof. Neil Gregor’s article, Mr. MacGregor is a museum advisor to the Merkel government. The book (published in 2014 in the U.S. by Alfred A. Knopf) is part of a collaborative work comprised of a radio show by BBC 4 and an exhibition at the British Museum: ‘Germany: Memories of a Nation’ (13). The book having come out last year, I’m not sure why the review in the Journal is in October of this year? But, I’m glad it was. A second review I’ll mention, ‘History Lesson‘, was in The Economist last year (14). This review was a bit more favorable.
           Now that I’ve cited a few of the professional reviews (there are many, by the way), I’ll start off saying that I enjoyed the book and certainly felt it was educational. I would actually recommend the work as part of the history curriculum for upper class high school students. The reason for this is that the work not only comprises well written German history, but European history as well, Periwinkle. It’s all there, from the rising of the Brandenburg Gate in the latter 18th Century as a customs site, to the Berlin Wall’s removal a quarter century ago. In this work, however, what makes the book are the vivid illustrations, photographs and objects. Photographs such as that of a worthless Eine Billion Mark note and that of woman burning hyperinflation bank notes in her stove, both illuminating. Photographs of the prisoners lying in horrid conditions in Buchenwald. Photographs of bombed out Dresden and children slowly picking up the individual bricks. Photographs of the handcarts being toted by freezing refugees resulting from the Potsdam Agreement. Illustrations and objects of amazing works of art are incorporated into the work, including the ‘Pieta’ and ‘The Grieving Parents’ by Kathe Kollwitz, and Durer’s many Nuremberg prints and plates. The etchings of these two artists are remarkable. Readers through the images alone are able to glimpse significant German history. The importance of the development of Gutenberg’s printing press (in Mainz) is discussed. The story of Johann Bottger, the Dresden alchemist who discovered how to produce porcelain, is covered.
           A photograph in MacGregor’s work of Hitler in a convertible VW in 1938 with Ferdinand Porsche leaning over reminded me of the Hoover Institution’s Prof. Anthony C. Sutton and his work Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler. You probably recall the discussion by Sutton on the role of international industrialists and financiers in the development of the Dawes and Young reparations plans in 1924 and 1928. Also, the discussion of other characters who aided in the development of the Wehrmacht and the cultivation of international corporate socialism. ‘Henry Ford was an early (1922) Hitler backer and Edsel Ford continued the family tradition in 1942 by encouraging French Ford to profit from arming the German Wehrmacht. Subsequently these Ford produced vehicles were used against American soldiers as they landed in France in 1944’ (15). Sutton discusses the role of cartels, I.G. Farben and others, tied to U.S. corporations and financial institutions. Since I’ve digressed here a touch, I’ll note an important item regarding today versus the Weimar era. Today we live in the age of nuclear deterrence which checks nations. It is in understanding this backdrop that one should continue to foster global trade with all nations, communist, socialist or otherwise. It is in the interest of U.S. citizens to cultivate open commercial relations with China, Russia, Cuba, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam and all other nations. Exports to emerging economies are one of the big U.S recovery strategies for far sighted thinkers. This will become less difficult in time as the currencies of other countries rise as their per capita wealth increases. At the moment, given the lousy global economic state, the dollar is likely to remain elevated. However, given an eventual global economic recovery, U.S. exporters should benefit as the dollar relatively becomes more realistically valued. The U.S. can do much to make its goods more competitive through basic reforms such as lowering the regulatory burden on firms and changes to corporate income tax policies. Hopefully economic growth will continue to foster liberal reforms in communist commercial partners. In his letter to Thomas Lomax on 12 March 1799, Thomas Jefferson echoed George Washington in stating ‘Commerce with all nations, alliance with none, should be our motto’ (16).
           MacGregor’s work covers the great German literary figures, including Schiller, Goethe, Herder, Marx, Engels, Heine, Mann and others. Also, the musicians Mozart, Wagner, Haydn, Handel, Bach and Beethoven, are touched upon. The discussion of Goethe’s work, Sorrows of Young Werther and its impact on Germany literary development was of interest. ‘Werther was a cult book for a generation, a passionate argument for the importance of the heart in the human condition; it is our emotional depth and power, Goethe is telling us, that really defines what it is to be human’ (17). Walhalla, the Bavarian shrine (Hall of Heroes) to past Germans, is discussed, including commentary regarding the conflict between Catholicism and Lutheranism, and Jewish discrimination. ‘The nineteenth century poet Heinrich Heine, acerbic, lyrical and ironic, had long been absent – partly of course because of his Jewish descent, but also because he was a severe critic of the very idea of such a shrine to the great. He thought Walhalla absurd, publishing a satirical poem mocking Ludwig for building this “field of skulls’’ (18). Heinrich Heine, truly one of the greats.
           MacGregor discusses the horrible atrocities committed by the Nazis against the Jewish people. The work incorporates images and objects from this period. Part Five, ’The Descent’ and Part Six ‘Living with History’ dedicate numerous chapters ranging from the latter Bismark era through the Second World War. MacGregor discusses Bismark’s rise post the failed 1848 revolution. Denmark’s defeat and loss of the Duchy of Schleswig to Prussia, followed by the subsequent defeats of France and Austria. German unification in 1871 and the rise to Chancellor of the Reich by Bismark are discussed. Bismark’s social policies, including the implementation of tariffs and the development of a welfare state, are covered. ’These policies too were double-edged, designed to see off the demands of the liberals and the Left. To many Germans today, he remains, as he was in life, a destructive, divisive figure, who ruthlessly thwarted the development of a coherent social democratic movement, with dreadful consequences in the twentieth century’ (19). I will grant Gregor’s criticism in the Journal that the coverage of the development of World War I is lacking. However, the discussion of the Weimer period is extensive, including the hardships faced by the German public due to the reparations and the rise of hyper inflation. Hjalmar Schacht’s inflation remedy is outlined, backing the new Rentenmark with properties. A successful stabilization method. The rise of the Nazis is discussed. The Nazi party using the currency crisis to persecute the Jewish people is outlined. The effects of the Depression and Hitler’s rise to Chancellor is discussed. The burning of the books in 1933 is mentioned. Heine’s 1821 remark followed, ‘This was merely a prelude: where they burn books, they end up burning people too’ (20). The persecution of the Jews, communists, and homosexuals is discussed. Buchenwald is covered with photographs and a lengthy discussion. MacGregor notes the importance of Roman law in German history, a fine section. Eisenhower’s visit to Ohrdruf is covered and his wishing to make sure that the people never forget the atrocities which occurred there.
           It was interesting to read the section ‘Living with History’. MacGregor interviews Rabbi Mendel Geurewitz who moved to Germany from the U.S. in the early ’90s. Part of the discussion in the work pertains to the Jewish migration to Germany during the post war period. Many European Jews immigrated to other parts of the world, yet some also remained and settled in Germany. When the Wall fell in Berlin, many of the Soviet Jews settled in Germany. ‘Two hundred thousand Jews moved to Germany after Helmut Kohl, in 1990, agreed to grant them immediate asylum and offered them financial assistance and every facility to integrate into the country. Those Russian Jews chose Germany in the full knowledge of what had happened fifty years earlier…’ (21). MacGregor notes the destruction of the synagogue in Offenbach during ‘Kristallnach’ in 1938. Rabbi Gurewitz discusses in the work the construction of a new synagogue in Offenbach by largely Polish Jews who remained in the area. Gurewitz also alludes to the positive aspects of his own relocation. The above quote regarding Helmut Kohl, Periwinkle, did have me recollecting the former Chancellor’s abilities. His leadership skills were significant during his lengthy term in office. Germany and Russia have enjoyed warm commercial relations since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Today, however, these relations are strained due to Russia’s recent actions in the Ukraine (Crimea) and Western imposed sanctions.
           Finally, Periwinkle, I’ll point you to German historian David Blackbourn’s History of Germany: 1780-1918 and specifically Chapter 9, ‘The Old Politics and the New’, for an excellent summary of the pre-World War I social, economic and political environment in Germany and Europe (22). Blackbourn looks at many aspects of the German Wilhelmine society during the period, including the limitations of the Constitutional Monarchy. He discusses the rise of nationalism, fostered through the development of the many Leagues of the period. These included the Pan-German League, the Defense League and the Navy League, each with their hundreds of thousands of members and their various industrial interests. Germany’s Grasp for World Power, written in 1961 by Hamburg scholar Fritz Fischer, is alluded to, including the various aspects of the Fischer thesis. Specifically the question of whether or not ‘Germany had consistent and aggressive war aims before 1914’ (23). Blackbourn concludes regarding the thesis, ‘The Fisher thesis sparked bitter controversy in Germany. Older, established historians attacked his views, rejecting the argument that Germany bore prime responsibility for the war… Many younger scholars followed Fischer… A generation on, two things are clear. First, while the Fischer controversy is now itself a part of history, the subject of many books and articles, it still provides the framework within which the origins of the war are discussed by both German and non-German historians. Secondly, there is no current consensus. Many adhere to a more or less modified version of the Fisher thesis’. (24). Blackbourn reviews the development of the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) and Triple Entente (Russia, France and Britain). Also covered in the work is the significant arms development of the various actors during the period, the economic and political stresses, the colonial issues, ethnic and racial issues, and briefly noted is the decline of the Ottoman Empire (24). Keep in mind our constant discussions relating to Washington and Jefferson and the other American founders who warned against joining blocs or alliances, Periwinkle, should you visit Blackbourn’s account of Europe during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Doing so will have you looking at the world today and scratching your petals. What has man learned? Does man consider historical events? Perhaps one of the differences today which we’ve highlighted in past letters is the degree of financial leverage at the government level. This may act to curtail contemporary conflict. Let us hope this is the case. Commerce, not conflict.
           I referenced the Blackbourn work (a copy of which I own) simply to contrast with Gregor. Blackbourn is cited on the back cover of Germany: Memories of a Nation – ‘He (MacGregor) has written a remarkable set of reflections on the objects and places of German memory’. The full review is here: ‘Germany: Memories of a Nation – Neil MacGregor – Review, bold, fluent and sharply intelligent’ (25).
           Sorry for the semi-formalities in the epistle, Periwinkle. I simply thought I’d incorporate a brief Works Cited page for your own reference. As I conclude, I can hear the wind blowing outside and see the few remaining autumn leaves, with their golden and brown hue, fluttering on the Aspens. This All Hallows’ Eve weekend rain drop beeds have formed on the windows, running their course. Missoula can use the moisture! Hope to hear from you soon.

With a handshake,

Tetraneuris

P.S. Sorry about the lack of umlauts above.

‘Und Wer’s nie gekonnt, der stehle/ Weinend sich aus diesem bund’ (26).

______________________________________________________

1 Bokencamp, Stephen R. Early Daoist Scriptures. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

2 Foote, Henry Wilder. The Jefferson Bible – The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazarath by Thomas Jefferson. Clarkson N. Potter, 1967.

3 Bokencamp, 98.

4 Ibid.

5 Ibid.

6 Roberts, Moss. Dao De Jing, The Book of the Way. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004, pp. 45.

7 Francis, Theo and Kate Linebaugh. ‘U.S. Companies Warn of Slowing Economy: Big firms to post first decline in earnings and sales since the recession’. Wall Street Journal, (online) 25 October 2015.

8 ‘Peak Profits. The age of the torporation: Big listed firms’ earnings have hit a wall of deflation and stagnation’. The Economist 24 October 2015, pp. 59-60.

9 Harsanyl, David. ‘Paul Ryan Starts off on Wrong Foot with Budget Deal. Boehner hands him defeat on the way out’. Reason, (online) 30 October 2015.

10 MacGergor, Neil. Germany: Memories of a Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014.

11 Gregor, Neil. ‘The Myth of the Two Germanys: Evoking a humane land of poets, thinkers, musicians and goldsmiths in which the Nazis were strange outsiders’. Wall Street Journal, (online) 16 October 2015.

12 Penny, H. Glenn. ’Special Issue: Germans and Brazilians’. German History Vol. 33, No 3, September 2015.

13 BBC & The British Museum (2014) ’Germany:Memories of a Nation’ Available at: http:// http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04dwbwz

14 ‘History Lesson’. The Economist, (online) 8 November 2014.

15 Sutton, Anthony C. Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler. Seal Beach: 76 Press, 1976, pp. 165.

16 Jefferson Writings. Edited by Merrill D. Peterson. ‘Letters 1799: To Thomas Lomax’. New York: Penguin Group, 2011, pp. 1063.

17 MacGregor, 140.

18 Ibid, 170.

19 Ibid, 389-390.

20 Ibid, 441.

21 Ibid, 525.

22 Blackbourn, David. History of Germany 1780-1918: The Long Nineteenth Century – Second Edition. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.

23 Ibid, 335.

24 Ibid, 339.

25 Blackbourn, David. ‘Germany: Memories of a Nation by Neil MacGregor – review, bold, fluent and sharply intelligent’. The Guardian, (online) 23 December 2014.

26 Schiller, Friedrich. ‘Ode An Die Freude’

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